第二课Lesson 2

《第二课》 Lesson 2

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In our life, we often use the words left, right, above, below when we describe the position of an object. How to say this words in Chinese? And in this lesson, we will learn them.

The first one,上 shàng,means up, above, ascend. Let’s spell it 横 竖 横。
好,下面我们来看一下the origin of the word.
上:上、下、高、低是相对而言的抽象术语。人们用地平线(一)上加一笔而成的象形文字来表示“上”。最初时这一笔是一点,即为“()”;后来延长为一条线,即“二”;继而把第二画竖起来成了“”;又曾经被修饰为“”。最后才定形为“上”。

Since up and down, above and below are relative and abstract terms, man conveyed the ideas graphically by relating a simple stroke to a horizontal foundation line (一). This stroke above the base line was originally a dot: ()extended to a line() propped upright: ().embellished () and finally stabilized : 上.
那么,“上”这个字怎么用呢? 我们来说一些由上字组成的词语,
For example, 上面 shàng miàn above
上等 shàng děng first-class
上苍 shàng cāng Heaven; God


Ok ,the second one, 下 xià means down, below, descend. How to spell it? 横 竖 点。
接着看一下the origin of 下
下:表达“下”或“低”的概念要涉及地平线。最早是在代表地平线的横线下加一点,即表示“下”,即“”;后变为一横,即“”;为了便于书写有简化为“”和“”的形式,最后形成了“下”

The concept of down and below is clarified in relation to a horizontal line. The stroke below the fundamental line was originally a dot: () which was extended to a line: () for ease in writing. The modified forms: () and () eventually led to the final ideograph (下). The characters above , although literally under water, are figuratively above water.
下可以组成哪些词语呢?
例如,下面 xià miàn below under
下层 xià céng lower level
下等 xià děng low grade


The third one, 左 zuǒ means left, it is also a Chinese surname. Let’s spell it. 横,撇,横,竖,横。
Ok .让我们接着看 the origin of 左
左:“左”字描绘的是一直拿着木工尺()的手()的形状。手工劳作中,左手通常用来协助右手的技术性工作。例如:当右手画线的时候,用左手拿尺子。“左”代表左方。

The character for left: 左 depicts the hand () that holds the carpenter’s square(), the left hand () is meant to help its more skilled correlative member in manual work () as, for example, holding the ruler while the right hand draws the line, 左stands for the direction left.

Then, let’s learn some terms of “左”
左边 zuǒ biān the left side
左面 zuǒ miàn the left side
左手 zuǒ shǒu the left hand

前面学习了上、下、左。The next one is 右。yòu means right.
Let’s spell it.横,撇,竖,横折,横。
Let’s the learn the origin of 右.
右:“右”字是由一只手()和一张嘴(口)组成的,表示人是用右手吃饭的。“右”代表右方。
The character for right: 右is simple a hand () and a mouth (口), signifying the hand you eat with the right. 右stands for direction right.
接着看一些有关“右”字的词语。
For example, 右边 yòu biān the right side
右面 yòu miàn the right side
右手 yòu shǒu the right hand


是不是有点累了呢?我们来看一下最后一个字,中。
zhōng means center, middle, neutral. Please spell it.竖,横折,横,竖。
Then , let’s learn the origin of 中.

中:射出一支箭()。正中一块方靶()的中心,就表示中心的“中”字()。为了起到修饰的作用又加上了两对条纹“()”,重新调整后变为“”,经过简化后成了“”,最终定形为“中”。“中”有代表了身处中心位置或表示中立。不幸的是,人们处事中,总是做不到完全中立。

By shooting an arrow: () right into the center of a square target: () man scored a bull’s eye and secured a mark for “center” : (). He added a decoration of four strips: (), rearranged them :(), stripped them off : (), and finally hit his mark for simplicity: 中. The symbol also means standing in the middle or neutrality (中立). Unfortunately ,in the application of neutrality, man has completely missed his mark.

At last, let’s learn some terms of “中”.
中间 zhōng jiān middle
中等 zhōng děng middle-level
中部 zhōng bù middle section
今天的课程就到这,上、下、左、右、中,你记住了吗?


  • 1. 你每天几点上班?
    Pinyin:   Nǐ měitiān jǐdiǎn shàngbān? Meaning: What's time do you go to work?
  • 2. 她正在上课呢。
    Pinyin:   Tā zhèngzài shàngkè ne. Meaning: She is on the class now.
  • 3. 下楼时要小心。
    Pinyin:   Xiàlóu shí yào xiǎoxīn. Meaning: Be careful when you go downstairs.
  • 4. 下周我要去美国。
    Pinyin:   Xiàzhōu wǒ yào qù měiguó. Meaning: I will go to America next week.
  • 5. 下个路口向左走。
    Pinyin:   Xià gè lùkǒu xiàng zuǒ zǒu. Meaning: Turn left at the next cross.
  • 6. 在你右边有个可爱的小猫。
    Pinyin:   Zài nǐ yòubiān yǒu gè kěài de xiǎomāo. Meaning: There is a cute cat on your right.
  • 7. 今天中午吃什么?
    Pinyin:   Jīntiān zhōngwǔ chī shénme? Meaning: What will we have for lunch today.
  • 8. 中国是一个发展中的国家。
    Pinyin:   Zhōngguó shì yígè fāzhǎnzhōng de guójiā. Meaning: China is a developing country.

  • 1. 上班    shàng bān
    verb. Meaning: go to work
  • 2. 上当    shàng dāng
    verb. Meaning: be cheated
  • 3. 下班    xià bān
    verb. Meaning: be off duty
  • 4. 下场    xià chǎng
    noun. Meaning: end; fate
  • 5. 左右    zuǒ yòu
    noun. Meaning: the left and right sides
  • 6. 中立    zhōng lì
    adjective. Meaning: neutral
  • 7. 中断    zhōng duàn
    verb. Meaning: break off


  • 1. 方位词 Words of location
    Meaning:       “左边”and “右边”are words of location, which make up a subclass of nouns. They may serve as such sentence elements as subjects, objects and attributives. When used as attributives, they are normally linked with the headword with “的”,e.g.“左边的房间”(the room in the left),“右边的商店”(the shop in the right).
    Example:    

    1.   八楼在九楼左边。

        Pinyin: Bālóu zài jǐulóu zuǒbiān.

        Meaning: Building No.8 in the left of Building No.9.


    2.   河的中间是什么?

        Pinyin: Hé de zhōngjiān shì shénme?

        Meaning: What's in the center of the river?

  • 2. Ideograms 指事字 zhǐ shì zì
    Meaning:       Also called simple indicatives or simple ideographs, these characters either modify existing pictographs iconically, or are direct iconic illustrations. For instance, by modifying 刀 dāo, a pictogram for "knife", by marking the blade, an ideogram 刃 rèn for "blade" is obtained. Similarly, doubling the pictogram 木 mù "tree" produces 林 lín "grove", while tripling it produces 森 sēn "forest". (It is interesting to note (see below) that 林 and 森 have the same reconstructed Old Chinese final. Direct examples include 上 shàng "up" and 下 xià "down", originally a dot above and below a line. This category is small.
    Example:    
  • 3. General Rules of Stroke Order (2)
    Meaning:       Horizontal before vertical.Write the horizontal line first then followed by the vertical line. 十 [shí] ten
    Example:    

  • 1. Please select the right one can describe the picture.
    A. 猫在床下。

    B. 床在猫下。

    C. 猫在床上。

    D. 床在猫上。

  • 2. Please select the right one can describe the picture.
    A. 猫在狗的上边。

    B. 猫在狗的下边。

    C. 狗在猫的右边。

    D. 狗在猫的左边。

  • 3. Which of the arrow is pointing 左.
    A. 1

    B. 2

    C. 3

    D. 4

  • 4. Please select the wrong one.
    A. 左 zuǒ

    B. 右 yòu

    C. 下 xià

    D. 上 shǎng

  • 5. What is the meaning of 中.
    A. left

    B. up

    C. right

    D. middle

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